by Julie A. Daymut, M.A., CCC-SLP
Cochlear implants are electronic hearing devices. These devices pick up
and process sound for a person who has severe-to-profound hearing loss. Cochlear
implants have two main parts—an external component and an internal component. The
external piece is larger and typically sits above and behind the ear by a magnet.
The internal component is "implanted" under the skin by a surgeon. An individual
usually receives one cochlear implant, on either the left or the right side.
After a person heals from surgery, the cochlear implant must be "started up." Mapping
is the term for adjusting the device so that a person hears sounds, including speech.
Learning to recognize, understand, and attach meaning to these sounds is a process.
Therefore, an audiologist changes the mapping over time as the person responds to
and learns sounds. The individual can work with a speech-language pathologist on
different skills, including identifying sounds, producing speech, and regulating
the loudness of one’s voice. As well, an individual with a cochlear implant might
use lipreading or sign language to help him/her communicate.
Who Is a Candidate for Cochlear Implants?
Adults and children who have severe-to-profound hearing loss may be candidates for
cochlear implants. Individuals who are candidates for cochlear implants would have
minimal or no benefit from hearing aids. Other important considerations
for getting a cochlear implant are the individual’s overall health, ability to maintain
the device, and available support system for educational or rehabilitation needs.
A team of healthcare-related professionals will help determine the benefits and
risks for each individual.
For children, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2010) states that
the best candidates for cochlear implants are those who: "have profound hearing
loss in both ears; can receive little or no useful benefit from hearing aids; have
no other medical conditions that would make the surgery risky; are involved (when
able), along with their parents, in all aspects of the informed consent process;
understand (when able), along with their parents, their individual roles in successful
use of cochlear implants; have (when able), along with their parents, realistic
expectations for cochlear implant use; are willing to be involved in intensive rehabilitation
services; and have support from their educational program to emphasize the development
of auditory skills" (para. 15).
For more information on cochlear implants go to:
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders – Cochlear Implants